Vijayadashami (विजयदशमी, Vijayadaśamī), also known as Dussehra, Dasara or Dashain, is a major Hindu festival celebrated at the end of Navaratri every year. It is observed on the tenth day in the Hindu calendar month of Ashvin, the seventh month of the Hindu Luni-Solar Calendar, which typically falls in the Gregorian months of September and October. Vijayadashami is observed for different reasons and celebrated differently in various parts of the Indian subcontinent. In the southern, eastern, northeastern, and some northern states of India, Vijayadashami marks the end of Durga Puja, remembering goddess Durga’s victory over the buffalo demon Mahishasura to restore and protect dharma. In the northern, central and western states, the festival is synonymously called Dussehra (also spelled Dasara, Dashahara). In these regions, it marks the end of Ramlila and remembers god Rama’s victory over Ravana



  • Durga (Sanskrit : दुर्गा – literally means “impassable”,”invincible, unassailable”,´´beyond defeat´´) identified as Adi Parashakti is a principal and popular form of the Hindu Goddess
  • The meaning of Goddess Durga is derived from the sanskrit words 
  • Durg (दुर्ग) which means “fortress, something difficult to defeat or pass” and
  • Durga is derived from the roots dur (difficult) and gam (pass through or go through)


  • Goddess Durga is a central deity in Shaktism tradition of Hinduism, where she is equated with the concept of ultimate reality called Brahman
  • Goddess Durga is a goddess of war – the warrior form of Parvati whose mythology centres around combating evils & demonic forces that threaten peace, prosperity, and Dharma the power of good over evil
  • Durga is also a fierce form of the protective mother goddess, who unleashes her divine wrath against the wicked for the liberation of the oppressed, and entails destruction to empower creation



  • Durga is revered after spring and autumn harvests, specially during the festival of Navratri
  • Durga is worshipped in Hindu temples across India and Nepal by Shakta Hindus
  • Her temples, worship and festivals are particularly popular in eastern and northeastern parts of Indian subcontinent during Durga puja, Dashain and Navaratri
  • As per Markandya Puran, Durga puja can be performed either for 9 days or 4 days (last four in sequence)
  • It is scheduled per the Hindu luni-solar calendar in the month of Ashvin and typically falls in September or October
  • The day of Durga’s victory is celebrated as Vijayadashami (Bijoya in Bengali), Dashain (Nepali) or Dussehra (in Hindi) – these words literally mean “the victory on the Tenth (day)


  • Durga is depicted in the Hindu pantheon as a Goddess riding a lion or tiger, with many arms each carrying a weapon often defeating Mahishasura (literally : buffalo demon)
  • Goddess Durga has been a warrior goddess, and she is depicted to express her martial skills
  • Her iconography typically resonates with these attributes, where she rides a lion or a tiger, has between eight and eighteen hands, each holding a weapon to destroy and create
  • She is often shown in the midst of her war with Mahishasura, the buffalo demon, at the time she victoriously kills the demonic force
  • Her icon shows her in action, yet her face is calm and serene
  • In Hindu arts, this tranquil attribute of Durga’s face is traditionally derived from the belief that she is protective and violent not because of her hatred, egotism or getting pleasure in violence, but because she acts out of necessity, for the love of the good, for liberation of those who depend on her, and a mark of the beginning of soul’s journey to creative freedom
  • Durga traditionally holds the weapons of various male gods of Hindu mythology, which they give her to fight the evil forces because they feel that she is the shakti (energy, power)
  • These include chakra, conch, bow, arrow, sword, javelin, shield, and a noose
  • These weapons are considered symbolic by Shakta Hindus, representing self-discipline, selfless service to others, self-examination, prayer, devotion, remembering her mantras, cheerfulness and meditation
  • Durga herself is viewed as the “Self” within and the divine mother of all creation
  • She has been revered by warriors, blessing their new weapons
  • Durga iconography has been flexible in the Hindu traditions, where for example some intellectuals place a pen or other writing implements in her hand since they consider their stylus as their weapon


  • Affiliation 
    • Adi-Parashakti
    • Sati
    • Parvati
    • Ambika
    • Kaushiki
    • Mahakali
    • Bhagavati
    • Chandi
  • Weapons
    • Chakra (discus)
    • Shankha (conch shell)
    • Trishula (Trident)
    • Gada (mace)
    • Bow and Arrow
    • Khanda (sword) and Shield
    • Ghanta (bell)
  • Mount : Tiger or Lion
  • Festivals : Durga Puja, Durga Ashtami, Navratri, Vijayadashami

Personal information

  • Siblings : Ganga as elder sister, Vishnu as elder brother
  • Consort : Shiva
  • Children : Kartikeya, Ganesha, Ashok Sundari


  • Durga is a major goddess in Hinduism, and the inspiration of Durga Puja – a large annual festival particularly in the eastern and northeastern states of India
  • One of the devotees of her form as Kali was Sri Ramakrishna who was the guru of Swami Vivekananda. He is the founder of the Ramakrishna Mission







  • Durga as the mother goddess is the inspiration behind the song Vande Mataram, written by Bankim Chandra Chatterjee, during Indian independence movement
  • Parts of the Vande Mataram was chosen as the national song in 1937 – The Indian National Congress decided to adopt only the first two stanzas as the national song to be sung at public gatherings, and other verses that included references to Durga and Lakshmi were expunged
  • So the first two verses of the song were adopted as the National Song of India
  • On 24 January, 1950, the Constituent Assembly of India has adopted “Vande Mataram” as national song
  • On the occasion, the first President of India, Rajendra Prasad stated that the song should be honoured equally with the national anthem of India, “Jana Gana Mana”
  • However the Constitution of India does not have any mention of “national song”



Bharat Mata statue at Kanyakumari (India)
  • The concept of Bharat Mata as the personification of the Indian subcontinent came into existence starting in the late 19th century, especially after the Indian Rebellion of 1857 against the British
  • Bharat Mata as a concept was first perceived to be an image of the land of India as depicted by Bankimchandra Chatterjee in his book Anand Math in 1882
  • Abanindranath Tagore portrayed Bhārat Mātā as a four-armed Hindu goddess wearing saffron-colored robes, holding the manuscripts, sheaves of rice, a mala, and a white cloth
  • Bhārat Mata (Hindi, from Sanskrit Bhāratamba भारताम्बा; अम्बा ambā means ‘mother’, also known as Mother India in English) is the national personification of India as a mother goddess
  • She is usually depicted as a woman clad in a saffron sari holding the Indian national flag, and sometimes accompanied by a lion
  • Durga is present in Indian Nationalism where Bharat Mata i.e. Mother India is viewed as a form of Durga’
  • This is completely secular and keeping in line with the ancient ideology of Durga as Mother and protector to Indians
  • Any woman who takes up a cause to fight for goodness and justice is said to have the spirit of Durga in her
  • There are Bharat Mata temples in Varanasi (Benares), Hardwar, Kolkata and announcement made to construct one in Kurukshetra
    Bharat Mata at Jatiya Shaktipeeth, Kolkata

  • The motto Bharat Mata ki Jai’ (“Victory for Mother India”) is used by the Indian Army
  • In Muslims majority Indonesia’s several dozen national armed units also use hindu-origin sanskrit language mottoes, including the National Armed Forces, Army, Navy
  • In Indonesia – for example the Indonesian Air Force’s motto Swabhuana Paksa (“Wings of The Motherland”) and the Indonesian National Police’s motto Rastra Sewakottama or “राष्ट्र सेवकोत्तम” (“Nation’s main servants”)
  • In Indonesia – The National emblem is Garuda and National ideology is pancasila (both Indian / sanskrit influence & inspiration)


Goddess Durga in Southeast Asia, from left: 7th/8th century Cambodia, 10/11th century Vietnam, 8th/9th century Indonesia

  • In Indonesia :
    • On the island of Java, have yielded numerous statues of Durga (at least 135) dated from 6th century onwards
    • In Muslims majority Indonesia’s several dozen national armed units also use hindu-origin sanskrit language mottoes, including the National Armed Forces, Army, Navy
    • In Indonesia – for example the Indonesian Air Force’s motto Swabhuana Paksa (“Wings of The Motherland”) and the Indonesian National Police’s motto Rastra Sewakottama or “राष्ट्र सेवकोत्तम” (“Nation’s main servants”)
    • In Indonesia – The National emblem is Garuda and National ideology is pancasila (both Indian / sanskrit influence & inspiration)
  • In Vietnam & Cambodia – numerous statues were found – However, most differ from the Indian representation in one detail. The Cambodian Durga iconography shows her standing on top of the cut buffalo demon head
  • In Mauritious – Durga Mata Statue in Ganga Talao in Mauritius (below)

  • In Bangladesh – the 4 day long Sharadiya Durga Puja – most important religious festival for the Hindus & Vijayadashami being a national holiday
  • In Sri Lanka – Durga in the form of Vaishnavi, bearing Vishnu’s iconographic symbolism is celebrated
  • In Buddhism
    • In Tibetan Buddhism – the goddess Palden Lhamo is similar to the protective and fierce Durga
    • In Japanese Buddhism – she appears as Butsu-mo (sometimes called Koti-sri)
  •  In Jainism :
    • The Sacciya mata found in major medieval era Jain temples mirrors Durga
    • In the Ellora Caves, the Jain temples feature Durga with her lion mount. However, she is not shown as killing the buffalo demon in the Jain cave, but she is presented as a peaceful deity


  • Special pujas are performed during Dasara also called Navaratri
  • The most significant are Saraswati puja and Theppotsavam
  • The festival of Dasara for Goddess “Durga” is celebrated here every year
  • A large number of pilgrims attend the colourful celebrations and take a holy dip in the Krishna river
  • Vijayadashami (विजयदशमीVijayadaśamī), also known as Dussehra, Dasara or Dashain, is a major Hindu festival celebrated at the end of Navaratri every year
  • It is observed on the tenth day in the Hindu calendar month of Ashvin, the seventh month of the Hindu Luni-Solar Calendar, which typically falls in the Gregorian months of September and October
  • Vijayadashami is observed for different reasons and celebrated differently in various parts of the Indian subcontinent
  • In the southern, eastern, northeastern, and some northern states of India – Vijayadashami marks the end of Durga Puja, remembering goddess Durga’s victory over the buffalo demon Mahishasura to restore and protect dharma
  • In the northern, central and western states, the festival is synonymously called Dussehra (also spelled Dasara, Dashahara)
  • In these regions, it marks the end of Ramlila and remembers god Rama’s victory over Ravana
  • On the very same occasion, Arjuna alone decimated more than a million soldiers and defeated all Kuru warriors including Bhishma, Drona, Ashwatthama, Karna and Kripa, a significant example of victory of good (Dharma) over evil (Adharma)
  • Alternatively, it marks a reverence for one of the aspects of goddess Devi, such as Durga or Saraswati
  • Vijayadashami celebrations include processions to a river or ocean front that involve carrying clay statues of Durga,  Lakshmi, Saraswati, Ganesha and Kartikeya, accompanied by music and chants, after which the images are immersed in the water for dissolution and farewell
  • Elsewhere, on Dasara, towering effigies of Ravan, symbolising evil, are burnt with fireworks, marking evil’s destruction
  • The festival also starts the preparations for Diwali, the important festival of lights, which is celebrated twenty days after Vijayadashami
Navratri Navaratri festival preparations and performance arts collage.jpg
Vijayadasami reveres Durga’s and Rama’s victory over evil depending on the region
Also called Dashahra, Dasara, Navaratri, Dashain
Observed by Hindus
Type Religious, Cultural
Significance Celebrates the victory of good over evil
Celebrations Marks the end of Durga Puja and Ramlila
Observances pandals (stages), plays, community gathering, recitation of scriptures, puja, fasting, immersion of idols or burning of Ravana
Date Ashvin (September or October)


  • The word Dussehra (Devanagari : दशहरा) is a variant of Dashahara which is a compound Sanskrit word composed of “dasham”(दशम) and “ahar” (अहर), respectively meaning “10” and “day”
  • Vijayadashami (Devanagari: विजयदशमी ) (Telugu : విజయదశమి) (Odia : ଵିଜୟା ଦଶମୀ) (Kannada: ವಿಜಯದಶಮಿ) (Tamil: விஜயதசமி) (Malayalam: വിജയദശമി) (Bengali: বিজয়া দশমী) a composite of two words “Vijaya” (विजय) and “Dashami” (दशमी), which respectively mean “victory” and “tenth,” connoting the festival on the tenth day celebrating the victory of good over evil
  • The same Hindu festival-related term, however, takes different forms in different regions of India and Nepal, as well as among Hindu minorities found elsewhere




  • Ravana kidnaps Sita and takes her to his kingdom in Lanka (present day Sri Lanka)
  • Rama asks Ravana to release her, but Ravana refuses ; the situation escalates and leads to war
  • After performing severe penance for ten thousand years, Ravana receives a boon from the creator-god Brahma – he could henceforth not be killed by gods, demons, or spirits
  • Lord Vishnu incarnates as the human Rama to defeat and kill him, thus circumventing the boon given by Lord Brahma
  • A deadly and fierce battle takes place between Rama and Ravana in which Rama kills Ravana and ends his evil rule
  • Ravana has ten heads – the killing of one who has ten heads is called Dusshera
  • Finally, Dharma was established on the Earth because of Rama’s victory over Ravana
  • The festival commemorates the victory of Good over Evil




  • In the Mahabharata – the Pandavas are known to have spent their thirteenth year of exile in disguise in the kingdom of Virata
  • Before going to Virata, they are known to have hung their celestial weapons in a Shami tree for safekeeping for a year
  • Bhima kills Kichaka
  • Hearing about the death of Kichaka, Duryodhana surmises that the Pandavas were hiding in Matsya
  • A host of Kaurava warriors attacks Virata, presumably to steal their cattle, but in reality, desiring to pierce the Pandavas’ veil of anonymity
  • Full of bravado, Virata’s son Uttara attempts to take on the army by himself while the rest of the Matsya army has been lured away to fight Susharma and the Trigartas
  • As suggested by Draupadi, Uttar takes Brihannala with him, as his charioteer. When he sees the Kaurava army, Uttara loses his nerve and attempts to flee
  • Then Arjuna reveals his identity and those of his brothers’. Arjuna takes Uttar to the tree where the Pandavas hid their weapons
  • Arjuna picks up his Gandiva after worshipping the tree, as the Shami tree safeguarded the Pandavas’ weapons for that complete year
  • Arjuna reties the thread of Gandiva, simply drags and releases it – which produces a terrible twang
  • At the same point of time, Kaurava warriors were eagerly waiting to spot Pandavas. Dispute talks took place between Karna and Drona
  • Karna told Duryodhana that he would easily defeat Arjuna and does not feel threatened by Drona’s words since Drona was intentionally praising Arjuna, as Arjuna was the favourite student of Drona
  • Ashwathama supports his father by praising Arjuna. Then Arjuna arrives to the battlefield
  • Eager to defend the land that had given him refuge, Arjuna engaged the legion of Kaurava warriors
  • The battle starts between Arjuna and the entire Kuru army
  • All the warriors including Bhishma, Drona, Karna, Kripa and Ashwathama together attacked Arjuna to kill him, but Arjuna defeated all of them multiple times simultaneously
  • During the battle, Arjuna also killed Sangramjita, the foster brother of Karna, and instead of taking revenge for his brother, Karna fled in order to save his life from Arjuna
  • Karna tried to fly away from Arjuna but he could not since Arjuna invoked Sammohanaastra which made the entire army fall asleep
  • This is the war in which Arjuna proved that he was the best warrior in the world at his times
  • In this way, Arjuna alone defeated the entire Kuru army consisting of 1,000,000s of soldiers – Duryodhana, Dushyasana, Shakuni and Maharathis : Bhishma, Drona, Karna, Kripa and Ashwatthama
  • One of the names of Arjuna is Vijaya – ever victorious
  • This incident took place on the same day in which Lord Rama killed Ravana
  • As it was Arjuna’s day, the day also became popular as “Vijaya Dashami”





is observed for different reasons and celebrated differently with focus, impetus and  various parts of the Indian subcontinent with regional variations

The constant theme among these variations and variations and versions being the


DUSSEHRA CELEBRATIONS & FESTIVITIES – 1 (Generally this variant is more commonly popular in Northern & Western India)


(The Ramlila is the story of Hindu god Rama from his birth)

Ramlila (Rāmlīlā) (literally ‘Rama’s lila or play’) is any dramatic folk re-enactment of the life of Rama according to the ancient Hindu epic Ramayana or secondary literature based on it such as the Ramcharitmanas

The RAMLILA festivities were declared by UNESCO as one of the “Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity” in 2008

UNESCO > include songs, narration, recital and dialogue based on the Hindu text Ramacharitmanas

These arts come to a close on the night of Dussehra – when the victory of Rama is celebrated by burning the effigies of evil Ravan and his colleagues

Dasara is observed with the burning of Ravana effigies
  • In most of northern and western India, Dasha-Hara (literally, “ten days”) is celebrated in honour of Rama
  • After the enactment of the legendary war between Good and Evil, the Ramlila celebrations climax in the Dussehra (Dasara, Vijayadashami) night festivities where the giant grotesque effigies of Evil such as of demon Ravana are burnt, typically with fireworks
  • Rama is the seventh avatar of the Hindu god Vishnu and the central figure of the Ramayana, a Sanskrit epic that integrates performance arts with stories driven by ethical values
  • The epic text is dated to 1st millennium BCE, and Ramlila is an adaptation of those stories’
  • Ramlila is a compound Sanskrit words “Rama” (a Vishnu avatar) and “Lila” (play, game, sport)’
  • Ramlila has spiritual significance to both the actors and the audience
  • Most Ramlilas in North India are based on the 16th century secondary work on Ramayana, Ramcharitmanas a verse form composition in the regional vernacular language (Awadhi a dialect of Hindi), by Tulsidas
  • Thousands of drama-dance-music plays based on the Ramayan and Ramcharitmanas (Ramlila) are performed at outdoor fairs across the land and in temporarily built staging grounds featuring effigies of the demons Ravan, Kumbhakarna and Meghanada
  • These verses are used as dialogues in traditional adaptations. Open-air productions are staged by local Ramlila committees (Samitis), and funded entirely by the villagers or local neighbourhoods in urban areas
  • The core team of performance artists train for the dance-drama, but the actual performance attracts impromptu participants from the audience and villagers
  • This art form is a part of the Hindu culture, found for many gods and goddesses, but those of Rama, Durga (as Durga Puja) and Krishna (as Rasa lila) are the most popular and annual events in the Indian subcontinent
  • The effigies are burnt on bonfires in the evening of Vijayadashami-Dussehra
  • While Dussehra is observed on the same day across India, the festivities leading to it vary
  • In many places, the “Rama Lila” or the brief version of the story of Rama, Sita and Lakshaman, is enacted over the 9 days before it, but in some cities, such as Varanasi, the entire story is freely acted out by performance-artists before the public every evening for a month
  • The performance arts tradition during the Dussehra festival was inscribed by UNESCO as one of the “Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity” in 2008
  • The festivities, states UNESCO, include songs, narration, recital and dialogue based on the Hindu text Ramacharitmanas by Tulsidas
  • It is celebrated across northern India for Dussehra, but particularly in historically important Hindu cities of Ayodhya, Varanasi, Vrindavan, Almora, Satna and Madhubani
  • The festival and dramatic enactment of the virtues versus vices filled story is organised by communities in hundreds of small villages and towns, attracting a mix of audiences from different social, gender and economic backgrounds
  • The festival is both a religious and cultural event, bringing the population together, states UNESCO, “without distinction of caste, religion or age”
  • In many parts of India, the audience and villagers join in and participate spontaneously, helping the artists, others helping with stage setup, make-up, effigies, and lights
  • These arts come to a close on the night of Dussehra – when the victory of Rama is celebrated by burning the effigies of evil Ravan and his colleagues
  • Traditionally organised in a makeshift open-air theatre at night, it is usually staged by amateur acting teams drawn from all segments of the society
  • Singers and musicians, men and women, elderly and youth play different parts, sing the verses to music, recite dialogues
  • The recitations and the narrative of the play are usually based on Ramacharitamanas
  • The dialogue is improvised, and often responsive to audience reactions
  • Dhol drummers and other musicians participate
  • The atmosphere is usually festive and free, with the audience whistling and commenting as the story proceeds
  • The stage is surrounded by food stalls and larger productions have a fair nearby
  • Surrounding areas temporarily transform into bazaars to cater to the audience
  • A committee (samiti) heads the preparation
  • In many rural areas, traditional venues for Ramlila have developed over the centuries, and hundreds of people will often make the trip nightly to attend the play, by walking over miles like a religious pilgrimage in earlier times
  • Actors typically don’t get paid, or get paid little for their efforts, but they are provided free food and accommodation by the villagers or committee
  • Performance costs are usually financed by fundraising in the community, often by self-organized Ramlila Committees
  • A Ramlila is not a simple play acted out in a drama theatre, but it is structured to encourage and allow the audience to participate
  • In major productions – the audience walk with the actors from one site to another, they chant or co-recite passage, they immerse themselves as minor or significant characters in the play, while the major roles are played by a troupe of artists
  • The audience cheers when the good gets the upper hand, they are sorrowful when a wrong happens such as the kidnapping of Sita and her imprisonment against her will by demon Ravana
  • They participate in the burning of the effigies, and the community welcome during the return of Rama back to Ayodhya
  • It is theologically an immersion experience
  • Over the centuries, Ramlila has evolved into a highly venerated art form, and has travelled to far corners of the globe, through Indian diaspora
  • The Rama story is also enacted in another popular art form as a night time fire shadow or day time puppet show


  • Most prominent variant among Ramlila is that of Ramnagar, Varanasi which is a 31-day event, while most Ramlila elsewhere are typically abridged 10 day event climaxing in Dussehra
  • The Ramnagar Ramlila is held over 31 days where the entire Ramacharitmanas is recited, instead of usual 10 for abridged production
  • It is known for its lavish sets, dialogues and visual spectacle
  • In Ramnagar, a number of stages have been constructed by the town, each named after the major sites of events in the Ramayana epic
  • The permanent structures and several temporary structure serve as sets, to represent locations like Ashok Vatika, Janakpuri, Panchavati, Lanka etc., during the performance
  • Hence the entire city turn into a giant open-air set, and audience moves along with the performers with every episode, to the next locale
  • As the play progresses, the actors and audience move from one place to another, they join the chorus, giving the feel that the audience is participating and is a part of the play
  • During the course of the performance, there is a double transformation of the space within the city, as it first transforms from a city to theatre and then to mythic geography, as the scale of the performance is gradually increased to mythic proportions, coming down only in the end
  • Another variant – Kullu Dussehra is celebrated in the Kullu valley of Himachal Pradesh and is regionally notable for its large fair and parade witnessed by an estimated half a million people
  • The festival is a symbol of victory of good over evil by Raghu Nath, and is celebrated like elsewhere in the Indian subcontinent with a procession
  • The special feature of the Kullu Dussehra procession is the arrival of floats containing deities from different parts of the nearby regions and their journey to Kullu

DUSSEHRA CELEBRATIONS & FESTIVITIES – 2 (Generally this variant is more commonly popular in South India)


Celebrations range from worshipping Durga, lighting up temples and major forts such as at Mysore, to displaying colourful figurines, known as a golu

Mysore Dasara procession and celebrations in Karnataka are a major tourist attraction

  • Vijayadashami is celebrated in a variety of ways in South India
  • Celebrations range from worshipping Durga, lighting up temples and major forts such as at Mysore, to displaying colourful figurines, known as a golu or Koluvu
  • Golu is the festive display of dolls and figurines in South India during the autumn festive season, particularly around the multiday Navaratri (Dussehra, Dasara) festival of Hinduism
  • These displays are typically thematic, narrating a legend from a Hindu text to court life, weddings, everyday scenes, miniature kitchen utensils, anything a little girl would have played with
  • They are also known as KoluGombe HabbaBommai Kolu or Bommala Koluvu
  • Each displayed item in a golu display is sometimes called golu doll or equivalent
  • These are typically made by rural artisans from clay and wooden materials then brightly painted
  • They are generally arranged in an odd number of padis (tiers) to tell a story. Goddess-related themes are common, along with developments such as anticipated wedding within the family and of friends
  • During the golu display season, families visit each other with gifts to view and chit-chat over the golu display, share festive foods, and sometimes play music or sing devotional songs together
  • Major Hindu temples such as the Meenakshi temple arrange elaborate golu displays each year for Navaratri
Tamil: Bomma Kolu
Telugu: Bommala Koluvu
Kannada: Gombe Habba
Navratri Golu.jpg
Dasara dolls arrangement
Observed by Residents of Tamilnadu, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka
Type Hindu
Celebrations Navratri
Observances Story telling with dolls, family visits
Begins Mahalaya
Ends Vijayadashami
Related to Navratri
  • The festival played a historical role in the 14th-century Vijayanagara Empire, where it was called Mahanavami
  • The event revers Durga as the warrior goddess (some texts refer to her as Chamundeshwari)
  • The celebrations hosted athletic competitions, singing and dancing, fireworks, a pageantry military parade and charitable giving to the public
  • The city of Mysore has traditionally been a major center of Dasara-Vijayadashami celebrations
  • Another significant and notable tradition of several South Indian regions has been the dedication of this festival to Saraswati, the Hindu goddess of knowledge, learning, music and arts. She is worshipped, along with instruments of one’s trade during this festival
  • In South India, people maintain, clean and worship their instruments, tools of work and implements of their livelihood during this festival, remembering Goddess Saraswati and Durga
  • Kids aged 3–4 who are new to school are admitted to school on Vijayadashami Day
  • Bommai Kolu in Tamil means Divine Presence. Bommala Koluvu in Telugu means Court of Toys and Bombe Habba means Doll Festival in Kannada
  • It is a part of the annual Dasara-Vijayadasami Hindu festival where young girls and women display dolls, figurine, court life, everyday scenes along with the divine presence of the Goddesses Saraswati, Parvati and Laxmi in the Tamil, Kannada and Telugu households during Navaratri or The Nine nights
  • On the first day of Navaratri, following Ganapathi puja, a welcoming ritual is performed for goddesses Saraswati, Parvati and Lakshmi by Hindu ritual called Kalasa Ahvanam which is performed by an elderly male or female of the family at an auspicious time
  • This is then followed by building a rack of odd-numbered shelves of Kolu (or Padi) (usually 3, 5, 7, 9, or 11), set up using wooden planks
  • After the Kolu has been covered with fabric it is then adorned with various dolls, figurines and toys according to their size, with the deities at the top
  • The Kolu is predominantly displayed with depictions from Hindu mythological Puranas text, court life, royal procession, ratha yatra, weddings, everyday scenes, miniature kitchen utensils, anything a little girl would have played with
  • In the evenings, women within the neighborhood invite each other to visit their homes to view the Kolu displays; they also exchange gifts and sweets
  • A Kuthuvilakku lamp is lit, in the middle of a decorated Rangoli, while devotional hymns and shlokas are chanted
  • After performing the puja, the food items that have been prepared are offered to the Goddess and then to the guests
  • On the 9th day Saraswati Puja, special pujas are offered to goddess Saraswati, the divine source of wisdom and enlightenment. Books and musical instruments are placed in the puja and worshipped as a source of knowledge
  • The 10th day, Vijayadasami, is the most auspicious day of all
  • It was the day on which evil was finally destroyed by good. It marks a new and prosperous beginning. Later, on the evening of Vijayadasami, one of the doll from the display is symbolically put to sleep, and the Kalasa is moved a bit towards North to mark the end of that year’s Navaratri golu
  • Prayers are offered to thank the Lord for the successful completion of that year’s Kolu and with hope of a successful one the next year
  • Then the Kolu is dismantled and packed up for the next year
  • Kolu also has a significant connection with the agricultural and handicrafts professions in India
  • Besides the economic aspect of the festival, it is an important occasion for socializing
  • During this season relatives and friends in south India make it a point to visit each other’s homes
  • This is also a very important occasion that promotes creative expression for women and for the family to work together on an aesthetic aspect


  • Mysore Dasara is the Nadahabba (state festival) of the state of Karnataka in India
  • It is a 10-day festival, starting with nine nights called Navaratri and the last day being Vijayadashami
  • The festival is observed on the tenth day in the Hindu calendar month of Ashvin, which typically falls in the Gregorian months of September and October
  • The Hindu festival of Dasara, Navratri and Vijayadashami celebrates the victory of good over evil
  • It was the day in the Hindu legends when Goddess Chamundeshwari (Durga) killed the demon Mahishasura
  • Mahishasura is the demon whose slaying by the Goddess gave the city the name Mysuru
  • The Mysuru tradition celebrates the warriors and the state fighting for the good during this festival, ritually worshipping and displaying the state sword, weapons, elephants, horses along with Hindu Devi goddess in her warrior form (predominantly) as well as the Vishnu avatar Rama
  • The ceremonies and a major procession is traditionally presided by the king of Mysuru
  • The city of Mysuru has a long tradition of celebrating the Dasara festival with grandeur and pomp to mark the festival. The Dasara festival in Mysuru completed 409th anniversary in the year 2019,while evidence suggests the festivities were observed in Karnataka state by the Vijayanagara Empire kings in the 15th century
Mysore Dasara
Mysore palace illuminated.jpg
Mysore Palace illuminated during the festival
Type Cultural, Religious (Hindu)
Significance Marking the victory of good over evil
Celebrations lighting Mysuru Palace, Ramayana theatre, mela (fairs), processions and parades
Begins September/October per Hindu calendar
Ends 10 days later
Frequency Annual
First time 17–27 September 1610
Related to Devi (goddess Shakti), The Ramayana, the Vijayanagara Empire, the Kingdom of Mysore, the Wadiyar dynasty


  • The festivities included a special durbar (royal assembly)
  • It was during the reign of Krishnaraja Wodeyar III in the year 1805, when the king started the tradition of having a special durbar in the Mysore Palace during Dasara – which was attended by members of the royal family, special invitees, officials and the masses
  • After the death of Srikanta Wadiyar in December 2013, this tradition has been continued by placing the “Pattada Katti” (royal sword) on the golden throne
  • The ninth day of Dasara called as Mahanavami is also an auspicious day on which the royal sword is worshipped and is taken on a procession involving elephants, camels and horses
A lit up Mysore Palace, the epicenter of all Dasara festivities held in Mysore


  • The main attraction of the ten-day Mysore Dasara festival is the Mysore Palace which is lighted daily with nearly 100,000 light bulbs from 7 pm to 10 pm on all days of the festival
  • Various cultural and religious programs highlighting the dance, music and culture of the State of Karnataka are performed in front of the illuminated Palace


  • On Vijayadashami, the traditional Dasara procession (locally known as Jumboo Savari) is held on the streets of Mysore city
  • The main attraction of this procession is the idol of the Goddess Chamundeshwari which is placed on a golden mantapa (which is around 750 kilograms of gold) on the top of a decorated elephant
  • This idol is worshipped by the royal couple and other invitees before it is taken around in the procession Colourful tableaux, dance groups, music bands, decorated elephants, horses and camels form a part of the procession which starts from the Mysore Palace and culminates at a place called Bannimantap where the banni tree (Prosopis spicigera) is worshipped
  • According to a legend of the Mahabharata – banni tree was used by the Pandavas to hide their weapons during their one-year period of Agnatavasa (living life incognito)
  • Before undertaking any warfare, the kings traditionally worshipped this tree to help them emerge victorious in the war
  • The Dasara festivities would culminate on the night of Vijayadashami with an event held in the grounds at Bannimantap called as Panjina Kavayatthu (torch-light parade)
  • In Mysore, India, the Vijayadashami Elephant procession during Mysore Dasara is called Jumbo Savari (from the British during their control of Mysore State)
  • The original name to this procession is Jumbi Savari (“going to the Shami (Banni) tree”). Now Goddess Chamundeshwari is taken in procession on an Elephant. But the “Jumbo” name is still intact.
  • After the Jamboo Savari, a torchlight parade takes place in the evening at the Bannimantap Parade Grounds.
  • Another major attraction during Dasara is the Dasara exhibition which is held in the exhibition grounds opposite to the Mysore Palace
  • The exhibition was started by the Maharaja of Mysore Chamaraja Wodeyar X in 1880 with the sole aim of introducing timely developments to the people of Mysore
  • The task of holding the exhibition is now entrusted with the Karnataka Exhibition Authority (KEA)
  • This exhibition starts during Dasara and goes on till December. Various stalls which sell items like clothes, plastic items, kitchenware, cosmetics and eatables are set up and they attract a significant number of people
  • A play area containing attractions like a Ferris wheel is also present to provide entertainment to the people
  • Various Governmental agencies setup stalls to signify the achievements and projects that they have undertaken
  • On all the 10 days of Dasara, various music and dance concerts are held in auditoriums around Mysore city
  • Musicians and dance groups from all over India are invited to perform on this occasion. Another attraction during Dasara is the Kusti Spardhe (wrestling-bout) which attracts wrestlers from all around India
  • It is also called banimantap there the people who are trained do bike parades etc


  • Elephants are an integral part of the Mysore Dasara Festival
  • The elephants form the core of the Mysore Dasara procession on the Vijayadashami day
  • The lead elephant carries the Golden Howdah (Chinnada Ambari) with the Goddess Chamundeshwari in it
  • The Golden Howdah weighs 750 Kilograms in weight and is purely made of gold
  • The Elephants start arriving to Mysore city in groups
  • They arrive to Mysore a month or so before the start of the actual festivities and they undergo practice for their march on the final day
  • The elephants are accompanied by their respective keepers or Mahouts
  • The elephants are usually brought in trucks and are occasionally walked the 70-km distance from their home base in the Nagarahole National Park to Mysore
  • Villagers greet the sacred animals all along their designated trekking route
  • As each party of pachyderms arrives at the Veerana Hosahalli forest checkpost in Hunsur taluk, from the forest, they are received by the District Minister, a host of officials and prominent persons from Mysore and people from nearby villages
  • The villagers perform folk dances, and beat drums and sing songs to welcome the elephants. This in keeping with the royal tradition of the Mysore Maharajas


  • While in their respective camps the elephants are served ‘Ragi mudde’, a mixture of ragi and horse gram and fodder branches
  • But when they are royal guests in the royal city of Mysore preparing for Dasara, they are served with ‘royal’ food till the grand Dasara finale – Jamboo Savari
  • The elephants get to eat uddina bele (black gram), green gram, wheat, boiled rice, onion and vegetables in the mornings and evenings
  • They get rice, groundnut, coconut, jaggery and sugarcane with some salt to add taste to the diet after they return from their regular rehearsals
  • This food is served twice a day
  • They also get branch fodder like banyan leaves
  • Extra care is taken while serving food to the jumbos
  • High-calorie and protein-rich food is served to the elephants to improve their physical fitness
  • They carry a lot of weight at the procession and for that, they need strength
  • Hence they are fed with rich food
  • The food served in the morning is laced with pure butter for flavour
  • Besides nutritious food, vitamin doses are also injected so as to balance the diet
  • An elephant eats 400 kilograms of fodder in a day in the forests
  • The food served to them in Mysore contains high calories and is more than what they eat in the jungles


  • The Dasara Elephants are usually caught by the elephant trainers via the Khedda operation
  • During the Wodeyar rule, the elephants thus caught were inspected in an open field for strength, personality, and character
  • The walking styles, weaknesses to seduction, the facial charisma were some of the factors considered for selection
  • Then the chosen elephants were trained for the festival. It is said that the king himself would oversee the training
  • Sometimes abandoned young elephants are also trained for dasara


  • The abode of the elephants during the rest of the year is usually their training camps and the surrounding National Parks
  • There are around 70 tamed elephants in exclusive camps at Dubare, Hebballa, Moorkal, Kallalla, Nagarahole, Veeranahosahalli, Metikuppe, Sunkadakatte, Bandipur, Moolehole, K. Gudi and Bheemeshwari
  • About 240 mahouts and kavadis take care of the needs of these elephants and develop a bond with them
  • The elephants are named in Kannada and usually have the names of Hindu gods and historical figures. Elephants Drona and Balarama carried the idol of deity Chamundeshwari housed in the Golden Howdah for a combined total of 30 years
  • Balarama took up the responsibility after Drona was electrocuted in 1998 at Nagarahole National Park. Balarama has been granted retirement after 13 years
  • The 52-year-old Arjuna replaced Balarama and carried the Golden Howdah during the Dasara 2012 Jamboo Sawari procession at Mysore on 24 October 2012
  • The other elephants participating in the event are Bharatha, Kanthi, Gayathri, Kokila, Sri Rama, Abhimanyu, Gajendra, Biligiriranga, Vikram, Varalakshmi, and Sarojini

DUSSEHRA CELEBRATIONS & FESTIVITIES – 3 (Generally this variant is more commonly popular in Western India)

Celebrations follow a wide range from fasting and prayers to group dances called DANDIYA RAAS with colourfully decorated sticks and GARBHA dancing in traditional dresses throughout the 10 days to colourful patterns and agricultural significance

  • In Gujarat, both the goddess Durga and lord Rama are revered for their victory over evil
  • Fasting and prayers at temples are common
  • A regional dance called Dandiya Raas, that deploys colourfully decorated sticks, and Garba, that is, dancing in traditional dress, is a part is a part of the festivities through the night
  • The Gondi people instead celebrate Ravan by carrying an image of him riding an elephant and singing praises to him, as they consider Ravan as their ancestor and one of their gods
  • Colorful floor patterns to mark Vijayadashami.
  • In Goa, this festival is locally known as Dasro in Konkani, marks Goddess Durga’s victory over the demon Mahishasura, concludes the festivities. Insignia known as Taranga play an important role in the festivities, which are sacred umbrellas that symbolise the village deities
  • At many temples a dance of the Tarangas is held
  • Oracles are associated with Dasara in Goa
  • On this day, a ritual called Seemollanghan of the deities is held
  • For this people follow a token ritual of crossing the border of their village
  • The icons of deities are carried in a grand procession
  • The tradition traces its roots to ancient times when kings would cross the border of their kingdom to wage war with the neighbouring kingdom
  • After Seemollanghan, there is a tradition wherein people exchange Aaptyachi pana
  • These leave symbolise gold and the ritual is a symbolic representation of exchange of gold
  • The festival is also celebrated as harvest festival by farmers and has an important association with Agricultural activities
  • At Dussehra, kharip crops like Rice, Guar, Cotton, Soybean, Maize, finger millet, pulses are generally ready for harvest, farmers begin their harvest on the day
  • Farmers bring crops like kharip crops from their fields for further processing and for trade. Due to this, daily arrivals of these crops in markets of the country normally increases significantly during this period
  • The festival has been historically important in Maharashtra
  • Shivaji – who challenged the Mughal Empire in the 17th-century and created a Hindu kingdom in western and central India, would deploy his soldiers to assist farmers in cropping lands and providing adequate irrigation to guarantee food supplies
  • Post monsoons – on Vijayadashami, these soldiers would leave their villages and reassemble to serve in the military, re-arm and obtain their deployment orders, then proceed to the frontiers for active duty
  • In North Maharashtra this festival is known as Dasara, and on this day people wear new clothes, and touch feet of elderly people and deities of the village temple
  • The deities installed on the first day of Navaratri are immersed in water. Observers visit each other and exchange sweets

DUSSEHRA CELEBRATIONS & FESTIVITIES – 4 (Generally this variant is more commonly popular in Eastern India as DURGA PUJA CELEBRATIONS)

Celebrations follow a wide range with DURGA PUJA as the key ingredient of festivity celebrations

  • In Mewar region of Rajasthan and Gujarat both Durga and Rama have been celebrated on Vijayadashami, and it has been a major festival for Rajput warriors
  • In West Bengal Vijayadashami is observed as Bijoya Dashomi, immediately after the day of Dashomi (the tenth day of Navaratri)
  • It is marked by processions in which clay statues are taken to a river or ocean for a solemn goodbye to Durga
  • Many mark their faces with vermilion (sindoor) or wear red clothing
  • It is an emotional day for some devotees, especially the Bengalis as the congregation sings goodbye songs
  • When the procession reaches the water, the clay statues of Durga and her four children are immersed; the clay dissolves and they are believed to return to Mount Kailasha with Shiva, and to the cosmos in general
  • People distribute sweets and gifts, and visit friends and family members.
  • Some communities such as those near Varanasi mark the eleventh day, called ekadashi, by visiting a Durga temple



  • Durga Puja – also known as Durgotsava or Sharodotsava is an annual Hindu festival originating in the Indian subcontinent which reveres and pays homage to the Hindu goddess Durga and is also celebrated because of Durga’s victory over Mahishasur
  • It is particularly popular and traditionally celebrated in the Indian states of West Bengal, Bihar, Jharkhand, Odisha, Tripura, Assam, and the country of Bangladesh
  • The festival is observed in the Indian calendar month of Ashwin, which corresponds to September–October in the Gregorian calendar and is a ten-day festival of which the last five are of most significance
  • The puja is performed in homes and in public, the latter featuring a temporary stage and structural decorations (known as pandals)
  • The festival is also marked by scripture recitations, performance arts, revelry, gift-giving, family visits, feasting, and public processions
  • Durga puja is an important festival in the Shaktism tradition of Hinduism
  • As per Hindu scriptures – the festival marks the victory of goddess Durga in her battle against the shape-shifting asura, Mahishasura
  • Thus, the festival epitomizes the victory of good over evil, though it is also in part a harvest festival celebrating the goddess as the motherly power behind all of life and creation
  • Durga puja coincides with Navaratri and Dussehra celebrations observed by other traditions of Hinduism in which the Ram Lila dance-drama is enacted, celebrating the victory of Rama against Ravana, and effigies of Ravana are burnt
  • The primary goddess revered during Durga Puja is Durga but celebrations also include other major deities of Hinduism such as Lakshmi (the goddess of wealth and prosperity), Saraswati (the goddess of knowledge and music), Ganesha (the god of good beginnings) and Kartikeya (the god of war)
  • In Bengali and Odia traditions, these deities are considered to be Durga’s children and Durga Puja is believed to commemorate Durga’s visit to her natal home with her beloved children
  • The festival is preceded by Mahalaya, which is believed to mark the start of Durga’s journey to her natal home
  • Primary celebrations begin on the sixth day (Shasthi), on which the goddess is welcome with rituals
  • The festival ends on the tenth day (Vijaya Dashami) when devotees embark on a procession carrying the worshipped clay sculpture-idols to a river, or other water body, and immerse them, symbolic of her return to the divine cosmos and her marital home with Shiva in Kailash – Regional and community variations in celebration of the festival and rituals observed exist
  • Durga puja is an old tradition of Hinduism though its exact origins are unclear
  • In modern times, the importance of Durga puja is more as a social and cultural festival than a religious one, wherever it is observed.
  • Over the years, Durga puja has morphed into an inseparable part of Indian culture with a diverse group of people celebrating this festival in their own unique way while pertaining to tradition
Durga Puja
আহিরীটোলা সার্বজনীন দূর্গা পুজো ২০১৮.jpg
Devi Durga killing Mhishasura with her lion. Lakshmi and Ganesha flank the left while Saraswati and Kartikeya flank on the right
Observed by Bengali, Odia, Maithils and Assamese communities as a socio-cultural and religious festival
Type Hindu
Celebrations Worshipping Hindu deities, family and other social gatherings, shopping and gift-giving, feasting, pandal visiting, and cultural events
Observances Ceremonial worship of goddess Durga
Begins On the sixth day of Ashwin shukla paksha
Ends On the tenth day of Ashwin shukla paksha
  • In West Bengal, Odisha, Assam, and Tripura, Durga puja is also called Akalbodhan (literally, “untimely awakening of Durga”), Sharadiya pujo (“autumnal worship”), Sharodotsab (“festival of autumn”), Maha pujo (“grand puja”), Maayer pujo (“worship of the Mother”), Durga pujo or merely Puja or Pujo
  • In Bangladesh, Durga puja has historically been celebrated as Bhagabati puja
  • Maa Durga is known as the Goddess of Power (feminine) which represents triumph of Goodness over evil
  • Durga puja is also referred to by the names of related Shakta Hindu festivals such as Navaratri, celebrated on the same days elsewhere in India such as in Bihar, Jharkhand, Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Kerala and Maharashtra, Kullu dussehra, celebrated in Kullu Valley, Himachal Pradesh, Mysore dussehra celebrated in Mysore, Karnataka, Bommai golu, celebrated in Tamil Nadu, Bommala koluvu, celebrated in Andhra Pradesh and Bathukamma, celebrated in Telangana
  • Durga puja has been celebrated as a socio-cultural event, while maintaining the roots of religious worship



  • Durga puja is a ten-day event, of which the last five days involve certain rituals and practices
  • The festival begins with Mahalaya, a day on which Hindus perform tarpaṇa by offering water and food to their dead ancestors
  • The day also marks the advent of Durga from her mythological marital home in Kailash
  • The next significant day of the festival is the sixth day (Sashthi), on which devotees welcomes the goddess and festive celebrations are inaugurated
  • On the seventh day (Saptami), eighth (Ashtami) and ninth (Navami) days, the goddess along with Lakshmi, Saraswati, Ganesha, and Kartikeya are revered and these days mark the main days of worship with recitation of scriptures, puja, legends of Durga in Devi Mahatmya, social visits to elaborately decorated and illuminated pandals (temporary structures meant for hosting the puja), among others
  • Durga puja is, in part, a post-monsoon harvest festival observed on the same days in the Shaktism tradition of Hinduism as those in its other traditions
  • The practice of including a bundle of nine different plants, called navapatrika, as a symbolism of Durga, is a testament practice to its agricultural importance
  • The typically selected plants include not only representative important crops, but also non-crops
  • This probably signifies the Hindu belief that the goddess is “not merely the power inherent in the growth of crops but the power inherent in all vegetation”
  • The festival is a social and public event in the eastern and northeastern states of India, where it dominates religious and socio-cultural life, with temporary pandals built at community squares, roadside shrines, and temples
  • The festival is also observed by some Shakta Hindus as a private home-based festival
  • The festival starts at twilight with prayers to Saraswati
  • She is believed to be another aspect of goddess Durga, and who is the external and internal activity of all existence, in everything and everywhere
  • This is typically also the day on which the eyes of the deities on the representative clay sculpture-idols are painted, bringing them to a lifelike appearance
  • The day also marks prayers to Ganesha and visit to pandals temples
  • Day two to five mark the remembrance of the goddess and her manifestations, such as Kumari (goddess of fertility), Mai (mother), Ajima (grandmother), Lakshmi (goddess of wealth) and in some regions as the Saptamatrikas (seven mothers) or Navadurga (nine aspects of Durga)
  • On the sixth day major festivities and social celebrations start
  • The first nine days overlap with Navaratri festivities in other traditions of Hinduism
  • The puja rituals involve mantras (words manifesting spiritual transformation), shlokas (holy verses), chants and arati, and offerings
  • These also include Vedic chants and recitations of the Devi Mahatmya text in Sanskrit
  • The shlokas and mantras praise the divinity of the goddess; according to the shlokas Durga is omnipresent as the embodiment of power, nourishment, memory, forbearance, faith, forgiveness, intellect, wealth, emotions, desires, beauty, satisfaction, righteousness, fulfillment and peace – The specific practices vary by region

The rituals before the puja begins include the following –

  • Bodhana : Involves rites to awaken and welcome the goddess to be a guest, typically done on the sixth day of the festival
  • Adhivasa : Anointing ritual wherein symbolic offerings are made to Durga, with each item representing a remembrance of subtle forms of her. Typically completed on the sixth day as well
  • Navapatrika snan : Bathing of the navapatrika with holy water done on the seventh day of the festival
  • Sandhi puja and Ashtami pushpanjali: The eighth day begins with elaborate pushpanjali rituals. The cusp of the ending of the eighth day and beginning of the ninth day is considered to be the moment when per scriptures Durga engaged in a fierce battle against Mahishasura and was attacked by the demons Chanda and Munda
  • Goddess Chamunda emerged from the third eye of Durga and killed Chanda and Munda at the cusp of Ashtami and Navami, the eighth and ninth days respectively
  • This moment is marked by the sandhi puja, involving the offering of 108 lotuses and lighting if 108 lamps
  • It is a forty-eight minutes long ritual commemorating the climax of battle
  • The rituals are performed in the last 24 minutes of Ashtami and the first 24 minutes of Navami
  • In some regions, devotees sacrifice an animal such as a buffalo or goat, but in many regions, there isn’t an actual animal sacrifice and a symbolic sacrifice substitutes it
  • The surrogate effigy is smeared in red vermilion to symbolize the blood spilled
  • The goddess is then offered food (bhog) – Some places also engage in devotional service
  • Homa and bhog: The ninth day of festival is marked with the homa (fire oblation) rituals and bhog. Some places also perform kumari puja on this day
  • Sindoor khela and immersion : The tenth and last day, called Vijaya dashami is marked by sindoor khela, where women smear sindoor or vermillion on the sculpture-idols and also smear each other with it
  • This ritual signifies the wishing of a blissful marital life for married women. Historically the ritual has been restricted to married women
  • The tenth day is the day when Durga emerged victorious against Mahishasura and it ends with a procession where the clay sculpture-idols are ceremoniously taken to a river or coast for immersion rites
  • Following the immersion, Durga is believed to return to her mythological marital home of Kailasha to Shiva and the cosmos in general
  • People distribute sweets and gifts, visit their friends and family members on the tenth day
  • Some communities such as those near Varanasi mark the day after Vijaya dashami, called Ekadashi, by visiting a Durga temple
  • Dhunuchi naach and dhuno pora Dhunuchi naach involves a dance ritual performed with dhunuchi (incense burner). Drummers called dhakis, carrying large leather-strung dhaks create music, to which people dance either during or not during aarati
  • Some places, especially home pujas, also observe dhuno pora, a ritual involving married women carrying dhunuchis burning with incense and dried coconuts, on a cloth on their head and hands




  • The process of the creation of clay sculpture-idols (pratima or murti) for the puja, from the collection of clay to the ornamentation is a ceremonial process
  • Though the festival is observed post-monsoon harvest, the artisans begin making the sculpture-idols months before, during summer
  • The process begins with prayers to Ganesha and to the perceived divinity in materials such as bamboo frames in which the sculpture-idols are cast
  • Clay, or alluvial soil, collected from different regions form the base
  • This choice is a tradition wherein Durga, perceived as the creative energy and material, is believed to be present everywhere and everything in the universe
  • In certain traditions in Kolkata, a custom is to include soil samples in the clay mixture for Durga from areas believed to be nishiddho pallis (forbidden territories; territories inhabited by the “social outcasts”)
  • The clay base is combined with straw, kneaded, and then molded into a cast made from hay and bamboo
  • This is layered to a fine final shape, cleaned, painted, and polished
  • A layer of a fiber called jute, mixed in with clay, is also attached to the top to prevent the statue from cracking in the months ahead. The heads of the statues are more complex and are usually made separately
  • The limbs of the statues are mostly shaped from bundles of straws
  • Then, starting about August, the local artisans hand-paint the sculpture-idols which are later dressed in clothing, are decorated and bejewelled, and displayed at the puja altars
  • The procedure for and proportions of the sculpture-idols are described in arts-related Sanskrit texts of Hinduism, such as the Vishvakarma Sashtra



  • Months before the start of Durga Puja, youth members of the community collect funds and donations, engage priests and artisans, buy votive materials and help build pandals centered around a theme, which has rose to prominence in recent years
  • Pandals have also been replicated on existing temples, structures, and monuments and yet others have been made of elements such as metal scraps, nails and turmeric among others
  • Durga puja pandals have also been centered around themes to acknowledge some political events
  • The budget required for such theme-based pujas is significantly higher than traditional pujas
  • For such theme-based pujas, the preparations and the building of pandals are a significant arts-related economic activity, often attracting major sponsors
  • Such commercialized pujas attract crowds of visitors
  • The growth of competitiveness in theme-based pandals has escalated costs and scale of Durga puja in eastern states of India
  • Some segments of the society criticize the billboards, the economic competition, and seek return to basics
  • The competition takes many forms, such as the height of statue. In 2015, an 88-foot statue of Durga in Kolkata’s Deshapriya Park attracted numerous devotees, with some estimates placing visitors at one million



  • The rituals of the puja also varies from being Vedic, Puranic, or Tantric, or a combination of these
  • The Bengali Durga puja rituals typically combine all three
  • The non-Bengali Durga puja rituals tend to be essentially Vedic (srauta) in nature but they too incorporate esoteric elements making the puja an example of a culmination of Vedic-Tantric practices
  • Durga puja has evolved over time – becoming more elaborate, social, and creative
  • The festival had earlier been a domestic puja, a form of practice that still remains popular
  • But it had also come to be celebrated in the sarvajanin (public) form, where communities get together, pool their resources and efforts to set up pandals and illuminations, and celebrate the event
  • Durga puja is a widely celebrated festival in the Indian states of West Bengal, Bihar, Assam, and Odisha
  • It is celebrated over a five-day period. Streets are decked up with festive lights, loudspeakers play festive songs as well as recitation of hymns and chants by priests, and pandals are erected by communities
  • As a tradition – generally married daughters visit their parents and celebrate the Durga puja with them, a symbolism alluding to Durga who is popularly believed to return to her natal home during the puja
  • Durga Puja is also a gift-giving and shopping season for communities celebrating it, with people buying gifts for not only family members but also for close relatives and friends
  • New clothes are the traditional gift, and people wear them to go out together during Durga puja. During puja holidays, people may also go to places of tourist attractions while others return home to spend Durga puja with their family
  • It’s a common trend amongst youngsters and even those who are older to go pandal-hopping and enjoy the celebrations
  • Beyond being an art festival and a socio-religious event – Durga puja has also been a political event with regional and national political parties having sponsored Durga puja celebrations
  • In 2019 – Kolkata’s Durga puja was nominated by the Indian government for the 2020 UNESCO Representative list of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity
  • Durga puja also stands to be politically and economically significant





  • Durga puja is celebrated commonly by Bangladesh’s Hindu community
  • In Dhaka – the Dhakeshwari Temple puja attracts visitors and devotees
  • In Nepal, the festivities are celebrated as Dashain
  • Beyond south Asia, Durga puja is organized by Bengali communities in the United States of America USA), Hong Kong
  • In London (with the sculpture-idols were immersed in River Thames for the first time in 2006 at the end of the puja after “the community was allowed to give a traditional send-off to the deities by London’s port authorities)
  • In Germany, the puja is celebrated in Cologne and other cities. In Switzerland puja in Baden, Aargau has been celebrated since 2003
  • In Sweden, the puja is celebrated in cities such as Stockholm and Helsingborg
  • In the Netherlands, the puja is celebrated in places such as Amstelveen, Eindhoven, and Voorschoten. In Japan, Durga Puja is celebrated in Tokyo with much fanfare

DUSSEHRA CELEBRATIONS & FESTIVITIES – 5 (Generally this variant is more commonly popular in Nepal as DASHAIN)

  • Youngsters greet elders and seek blessings on Dashain (Dashami) among the Hindu community in Nepal and Himalayan regions
  • In Nepal, Vijayadashami follows the festival of Dashain. Youngsters visit the elders in their family, distant ones come to their native homes, and students visit their school teachers
  • The elders and teachers welcome the youngsters, mark their foreheads with tika and bless them for virtuous success and prosperity in the year ahead



Ayudha Puja
Also Called Ayudha Puja also observed as Saraswati Puja
Observed by Hindus
Celebrations Ayudha Puja and Saraswati Pooja
Observances Veneration of implements, machines, weapons, books and musical instruments
Begins Ayudha Puja on Navami (ninth) day in Navaratri
Frequency annual
Related to Dasara or Navaratri or Golu

  • Saraswati Puja (goddess of wisdom & learning) is also performed concurrent with Ayudha Puja
  • Books and drums are kept for her blessings
  • Ayudha Puja is a part of the Navratri festival (Nine nights), a Hindu festival that is traditionally celebrated in India
  • It may be translated to “worship of Instruments”. It is celebrated in Karnataka (in erstwhile Mysore State) as “Ayudha Puje” (Kannada: ಆಯುಧ ಪೂಜೆ).Tamil Nadu as Ayudha Pujai (Tamil: ஆயுத பூஜை), in Telangana and Andhra Pradesh as Aayudha Pooja (Telugu: ఆయుధ పూజ), in Kerala as Ayudha Puja (Malayalam: ആയുധ പൂജ), “Astra Puja” (Odia: ଅସ୍ତ୍ର ପୂଜା) or “Ayudha Puja” in Odisha, “Shastra Puja” (Marathi: आयुध पूजा/ खंडे नवमी) or “Ayudha Puja/ Khande Navami” in Maharashtra, and in Karnataka (in the erstwhile Mysore State) as “Ayudha Puje” (Kannada: ಆಯುಧ ಪೂಜೆ)
  • The festival falls on the tenth day of the bright half of Moon’s cycle of 15 days (as per Almanac) in the month of September/October, and is popularly a part of the Dussehra or Navaratri or Durga Puja or Golu festival
  • On the tenth day of the Dussehra festival, weapons and tools are worshipped. In Karnataka, the celebration is for the slaying of the demon king Mahishasura by the goddess Durga
  • While the Navaratri festival is observed all over the country, the festivity that is widely marked as Ayudha Puja possesses slight variations of worship and practices across India
  • The principal Shakti goddesses worshiped during the Ayudha puja are Saraswati (the Goddess of wisdom, arts and literature), Lakshmi (the goddess of wealth) and Parvati (the divine mother), apart from various types of equipment – it is on this occasion when weapons are worshipped by soldiers and tools are revered by artisans
  • The Puja is considered a meaningful custom, which focuses specific attention to one’s profession and its related tools and connotes that a divine force is working behind it to perform well and for getting the proper reward
  • In the cross cultural development that has revolutionized the society, with modern science making a lasting impact on the scientific knowledge and industrial base in India, the ethos of the old religious order is retained by worship of computers and typewriters also during the Ayudha Puja, in the same manner as practiced in the past for weapons of warfare
  • In Orissa, tools traditionally used for cultivation like plough, war like sword and dagger, and inscription writing like “karani” or “lekhani” (metal stylus) are worshiped


  • The tools and all implements of vocation are first cleaned
  • All the tools, machines, vehicles and other devices are then painted or well polished after which they are smeared with turmeric paste, sandalwood paste (in the form of a Tilak (insignia or mark) and Kumkum (vermillion)
  • Then in the evening, previous to the puja day, they are placed on an earmarked platform and decorated with flowers
  • In the case of weapons of war, they are also cleaned, bedecked with flowers and tilak and placed in a line, adjacent to a wall
  • On the morning of the puja that is on the Navami day, they are all worshipped along with the images of Saraswati, Lakshmi and Parvati
  • Books and musical instruments are also placed on the pedestal for worship. On the day of the puja, these are not to be disturbed
  • The day is spent in worship and contemplation






  • Bathukamma is floral festival celebrated predominantly in Telangana and some parts of Andhra Pradesh
  • Every year this festival is celebrated as per Sathavahana calendar for nine days starting Mahalaya Amavasya (also known as Mahalaya Amavasya or Pitru Amavasya) till Durgashtami, usually in September–October of Gregorian calendar
  • Bathukamma is celebrated for nine days during Durga Navratri
  • It starts on the day of Mahalaya Amavasya and the 9-day festivities will culminate on “Saddula Bathukamma” or “Pedda Bathukamma” festival on Ashwayuja Navami, popularly known as Durgashtami which is two days before Dussehra
  • Bathukamma is followed by Boddemma, which is a 7-day festival. Boddemma festival that marks the ending of Varsha Ruthu whereas Bathukamma festival indicates the beginning of Sarad or Sharath Ruthu
  • Bathukamma represents cultural spirit of Telangana
  • Bathukamma is a beautiful flower stack, arranged with different unique seasonal flowers most of them with medicinal values, in seven concentric layers in the shape of temple gopuram
  • In Telugu – ‘Bathukamma’ means ‘Mother Goddess come Alive’ and Goddess Maha Gauri-‘Life Giver’ is worshipped in the form of Bathukamma – the patron goddess of womanhood, Gauri Devi
  • Historically, bathukamma meant “festival of life” and was celebrated to thank Goddess Parvati for her blessings for the crop harvest and income she helped generate this (current) year and again ask her blessing for the next year

  • Bathukamma is the festival for feminine felicitation
  • On this special occasion women dress up in the traditional sari combining it with jewels and other accessories
  • Teenage Girls wear Langa-Oni/Half-Sarees/Lehenga Choli combining it with jewels in order to bring out the traditional grace of the attire
Batukamma Logo.png
Official name Batukamma
Type Floral Festival of Goddess Gauri
Celebrations 9 days
Observances States of Telangana and some parts of Andhra Pradesh, and some parts of Vidarbha India
Begins Mahalaya Amavasya (Pitru Amavasya)
Ends Durgashtami
Date September/October
Frequency Annual
Related to Dasara

  • Day 1: Engili pula Bathukamma
  • Day 2: Attukula Bathukamma
  • Day 3: Muddappappu Bathukamma
  • Day 4: Nanabiyyam Bathukamma
  • Day 5: Atla Bathukamma
  • Day 6: Aligina Bathukamma (alaka Bathukamma)
  • Day 7: Vepakayala Bathukamma
  • Day 8: Vennae muddala Bathukamma
  • Day 9: Sadhula Bathukamma

Brothers bring flowers to mother and sisters to do bathukamma


  • Men in the house gather flowers Bathukamma Flowers from the wild plains like Celosia, Senna, Marigold, Chrysanthemum, Indian Lotus, Cucurbita leaves & flowers, Cucumis Sativus leaves & flowers, Memecylon edule, Tridax procumbens, Trachyspermum ammi, Katla, Teku Flowers, etc., which bloom in this season in various vibrant colors all across the uncultivated and barren plains of the region
  • Preparing a Bathukamma is a folk art
  • Women start preparing Bathukamma from the afternoon
  • They cut the flowers leaving the little length base, some dip Gunugu (Celosia) flowers in various vibrant colours, some scented and arrange them on a wide plate called Thambalam
  • The songs are to invoke the blessings of various goddesses
  • Each day has a name mainly signifying the type of “naivedyam” (food offering) offered
  • Most of the naivedyam offered are very simple to prepare, and usually young children or young girls are mainly involved in the preparation of the offerings for the first eight days of the festival
  • The last day, called saddula Bathukamma is when all the women take part in the preparation. Following is the list of names for each day and the naivedyam offered on that day
  • Engili pula Bathukamma- The first day of the festival falls on Mahalaya Amavasya, also known as Pethara Amavasya in Telangana region

Food offering/Naivedyam: Nuvvulu (Sesame seeds) with biyyampindi (rice flour) or nookalu (coarsely ground wet rice).

  • Atkula Bathukamma: The second day is called Atkula bathukamma, falls on the Padyami (first day) of Ashwayuja masam.
  • Food offering/Naivedyam: Sappidi pappu (Bland boiled lentils), bellam (jaggery), and atkulu (flattened parboiled rice)
  • Muddapappu Bathukamma: The third day of Bathukamma falls on Vidiya/second day of Aswwayuja masam.
  • Food offering/Naivedyam: muddapappu (softened boiled lentils), milk and bellam (jaggery)
  • Nanabiyyam Bathukamma: The fourth day falls on thidiya/third day of Aswayuja masam.
  • Food offering/Naivedyam: nananesina biyyam (wet rice), milk, and bellam (jaggery)
  • Atla Bathukamma: The fifth day falls on the chathurdi/fourth day of Aswayuja masam.
  • Food offering/Naivedyam: uppidi pindi atlu (pan cakes made from wheatlets), or Dosa
  • Aligina Bathukamma : The sixth day falls on the panchami/fifth day of Aswayuja masam.
  • No food offering is made.
  • Vepakayala Bathukamma: The seventh day falls on the sashti/sixth day of Ashwayuja masam.
  • Food offering/Naivedyam: rice flour shaped into the fruits of neem tree is deepfried.
  • Vennamuddala Bathukamma: The eight day falls on sapthami/seventh day of Ashwayuja masam.
  • Food offering/Naivedyam: nuvvulu (sesame), Venna (Butter) or ghee (clarified butter), and bellam (jaggery)
  • Saddula Bathukamma : The ninth day of bathukamma is celebrated on ashtami/eight day of Ashwayuja masam, and coincides with Durgashtami.
  • Food offering / Naivedyam : Five types of cooked rice dishes: perugannam saddi (curd rice), chinthapandu pulihora saddi (tamarind rice), nimmakaya saddi (lemon rice), kobbara saddi (coconut rice) and nuvvula saddi (sesame rice)


  • This festival is celebrated for nine days and concludes on Durgastami
  • The last day of the festival is called Saddula Bathukamma
  • On this final day immersion of Bathukamma (Bathukamma Visarjan) in water bodies is celebrated with utmost devotion and enthusiasm with rhythmic drum beats throughout Telangana
  • The evening offers a beautiful, calming and a peaceful visual treat. Gauramma (a symbolic idol of Gowri made of turmeric) is taken back from Bathukamma before immersion and every married woman applies a paste of this, on her Mangala sutra that marks the solemnization of her marriage and also her husband is protected from all evils and ill fate
  • For 9 days of festival each day a Nivedyam or a special dish sattu is prepared and offered to the goddess
  • General ingredients of the dishes are Corn (మొక్క జొన్నలు), Sorghum (జొన్నలు), Bajra (సజ్జలు), Black Gram (మినుములు), Bengal Gram (శనగలు), Green Gram (పెసర్లు), Ground Nuts (పల్లి), Sesame (నువ్వులు), Wheat (గోధుమలు), Rice (బియ్యము), Cashew Nut (Kaju), Jaggery (బెల్లం), Milk (పాలు) etc. Maleeda – a combination of Roti and Jaggery, is prepared on this day and distributed at the end of the event


  • Bathukamma means ‘come back to life mother’ and it is an asking for Goddess Sati to return
  • Legend has it that Sati returned as Goddess Parvati and therefore the festival is also dedicated to Goddess Parvati
  • There are many myths behind this festival. According to one myth Goddess Gauri killed ‘Mahishasura’ the demon after a fierce fight
  • After this act, she went to sleep on the ‘Aswayuja Padyami’, due to fatigue
  • The devotees prayed to her to wake up, and she woke up on the Dasami
  • The other being Bathukamma, as the daughter of the ‘Chola’ King ‘Dharmangada’ and ‘Satyavati’
  • The king and queen lost their 100 sons in the battlefield and prayed to Goddess Lakshmi to be born in their house, as their child
  • Goddess Lakshmi heard their sincere prayers and chose to oblige them
  • When Lakshmi was born in the royal palace, all the sages came to bless her and they blessed her with immortality “Bathukamma or Live Forever”
  • Since then Bathukamma festival is celebrated by young girls in Telangana
  • The purpose of this festival is to pray to the Goddess in the belief that the young girls would get husbands as per their wish, to teach the young girls how to take care of their in-laws, their husbands, be great women who respect elders, love people around them, be guides to their younger ones
  • Further, married women celebrate the festival to pray to the Goddess for good health and prosperity of their families
  • Bathukamma or ‘Shakthi’, according to one legend, is a lover of flowers
  • Flowers are arranged on a square wooden plank or a square bamboo frame with the size of frames tapering off to form a pinnacle on top
  • They resemble the shape of a temple ‘Gopura’. Gauramma (a symbolic idol of Gowri made of turmeric) is placed on top of the flowers. This little floral mountain is worshipped as Goddess Bathukamma
  • This festival is celebrated with joy and gaiety. During these celebrations, there are dance performances, music, dramas and a variety of entertainments as thousands of tourists and locals too, flock to witness the happenings. ‘Jataras’ are also held during this month long celebrations







  • According to a legend, the now verdant Vijayawada was once a rocky region strewn with hills that obstructed the flow of River Krishna
  • The land was thus rendered unfit for habitation or cultivation
  • Invocation to Lord Shiva for His intervention directed the hills to make way for the river
  • And the river started flowing unimpeded with all its might, through the tunnels or “Bejjam” bored into the hills by Lord Shiva. That is how the place got its name Bezawada
  • One of the many mythologies associated with this place is that Arjuna prayed to Lord Shiva on top of Indrakeela hill to win His blessings and the city derived its name “Vijayawada” after this victory
  • Another popular legend is about the triumph of goddess Kanakadurga over the demon King Mahishasura
  • It is said that the growing menace of demons became unbearable for the natives
  • Sage Indrakila practiced severe penance, and when the goddess appeared the sage pleaded Her to reside on his head and keep vigil on the wicked demons
  • As per his wishes of killing the demons, Goddess Durga made Indrakila Her permanent abode
  • Later, She also slayed the demon king Mahishasura freeing the people of Vijayawada from evil
  • At the Kanakadurga temple, the enchanting 4-foot-high (1.2 m) icon of the deity is bedecked in glittering ornaments and bright flowers
  • Her icon here depicts Her eight-armed form -each holding a powerful weapon- in a standing posture over the demon Mahishashura and piercing him with Her trident
  • The goddess is the epitome of beauty
  • Adjacent to the Kanakadurga temple is the shrine of Malleswara Swamy on the Indrakeeladri
  • By ascending the steps on the hill, one comes across little images of different deities, prominent among them are Kanaka Durga, Malleswara and Krishna(River)


  • Kanaka Durga Temple is synonymous with Vijayawada. It is mentioned in the sacred texts
  • This is the place where Arjuna obtained the Pasupatha astra after his great penance for Lord Shiva
  • The temple was constructed for Goddess Durga by Arjuna
  • It is connected by steps and a ghat road
  • The temple occupies an important place in the scriptures as several of the Siva-leelas and Shakti-mahimas were enacted on or around it, making the region a place of unequaled spiritual significance and attracting pilgrims since times immemorial
  • It is mentioned in the hindu scriptures that the deity in the Kanakadurga temple is regarded as ‘Swayambhu’ or self-manifested, hence considered very powerful
  • Inscriptions of different dynasties are found in the temple


  • Durga Temple-VijayawadaLocated in the heart of Vijayawada city, the temple is just a 10 minutes drive from the railway station and Bus stand and about 20 km from airport
  • Temple buses are available at bus stand and railway station for every 20 minutes
  • Vijayawada is located 275 kilometers from Hyderabad
  • Vijayawada is well connected by road, rail and air from all parts of the country


  • Sri Kanaka Durga Devi, the chief deity of the temple is portrayed as blessing the visiting devotees in various forms (avatars) during the ten-day festival
  • A symbolic representation of the 10 forms of triumph of good over evil, this form (known as ‘Alankaram’) of the day is chosen as per the astrological star of each day, in accordance with the lunar calendar
  • Note: Alankarams may change according to Thidis and nakshatrams every year

కనకదుర్గ గుడి

  • కనకదుర్గ గుడి, ఆంధ్ర ప్రదేశ్, భారతదేశంలో ఒక ప్రసిద్ధమైన దేవస్థానం
  • కనకదుర్గ గుడి విజయవాడ నగరంలో కృష్ణా నది ఒడ్దున ఇంద్రకీలాద్రి పర్వతం మీద ఉంది
  • కనకదుర్గ గుడి ఆంధ్రప్రదేశ్ రాష్ట్రంలోనే రెండో పెద్ద దేవాలయం
  • విజయవాడ పేరు చెప్పగానే కనక దుర్గ ఆలయం గుర్తుకు వస్తుంది
  • హిందూ పురాణాలలో అమ్మవారి గురించి ప్రస్తావన ఉంది
  • ఆలయంలో అమ్మవారి విగ్రహం సుమారు నాలుగు అడుగుల ఎత్తు ఉంటుంది
  • మిరిమిట్లు గొలిపే ఆభరణాలు, పూలతో అలంకరించబడి ఉంటుంది. మూర్తికి ఎనిమిది చేతులు ఉన్నాయి
  • ఒక్కో చేతిలో ఒక్కో ఆయుధం ఉంటుంది. త్రిశూలంతో మహిషాసురుని గుండెలో పొడుస్తున్న భంగిమలో ఉంటుంది

కనకదుర్గ గుడి

పేరువెనుక చరిత్ర

  • కృతయుగానికి పూర్వం కీలుడు అనే యక్షుడు అమ్మావారుని గురించి తపస్సు చేసి, ప్రత్యక్షం చేసుకుని ఆమెను తన హృదయస్థానంలో నిలిచి ఉండమని కోరాడు
  • అమ్మవారు కీలుని పర్వతంగా నిలబడమని కృతయుగంలో రాక్షస సంహారం చేసిన తరువాత తాను ఆ పర్వతం మీద నిలిచి ఉంటానని మాటిచ్చింది
  • కీలుడు కీలాద్రిగా మారి అమ్మవారి కొరకు ఎదురుచూస్తూ ఉన్నాడు. అమ్మవారిని సేవించుకోవడానికి ఇంద్రాది దేవతలు ఇక్కడకు తరచూ రావడం వలన కీలాద్రి ఇంద్రకీలాద్రిగా మారింది
  • ఇక్కడ వెలసిన మహిషాసురమర్ధిని ఆమె కనకవర్ణంతో వెలుగుతున్న కారణంగా కనక దుర్గ అయింది. ఇక్కడ అర్జునుడు శివుడి కొరకు తపస్సు చేసి శివుడి నుండి పాశుపతాస్త్రాన్ని పొందాడు
  • కనుక ఈ ప్రాంతం విజయవాడ అయింది

కనకదుర్గ గుడి

క్షేత్ర పురాణం

  • శ్రీ దుర్గా మల్లేశ్వర స్వామి వారి దేవస్ధానం కృష్ణానది ఒడ్డునే ఉన్న ఇంద్రకీలాద్రి పర్వతం పైన ఉంది
  • ఇక్కడ దుర్గా దేవి స్వయంభువుగా (తనకు తానుగా) వెలసిందని క్షేత్ర పురాణంలో చెప్పబడింది
  • ఆది శంకరాచార్యులవారు తమ పర్యటనలలో ఈ అమ్మవారిని దర్శించి ఇక్కడ శ్రీచక్ర ప్రతిష్ఠ చేసారని ప్రతీతి
  • ప్రతి సంవత్సరం కొన్ని లక్షలమంది ఈ దేవాలయానికి వచ్చి దర్శనం చేసుకొంటారు
కనకదుర్గ అమ్మవారి విగ్రహము
  • రాక్షసుల బాధ భరించ లేక ఇంద్రకీలుడనే మహర్షి దుర్గాదేవిని గురించి తపస్సు చేసి అమ్మవారిని తనపైనే నివాసముండి రాక్షసులను సంహరించమని ప్రార్థించగా, ఆ తల్లి అక్కడ ఇంద్రకీలాద్రి (ఇంద్రకీలుడి కొండ) పై కొలువుతీరింది
  • అర్జునుడు ఈ కొండ పై శివుని గురించి తపస్సు చేసాడని కూడా ప్రతీతి. ఈ ఆలయానికి హిందూ పురాణాల్లో ప్రత్యేకమైన స్థానం ఉంది. శివలీలలు, శక్తి మహిమలు మొదలైనవి ఆలయంలోని ఆవరణలో అక్కడక్కడా గమనించవచ్చు

కనకదుర్గ గుడి

నవరాత్రి ఉత్సవాలు

  • ఈ దుర్గాదేవి అమ్మవారికి ప్రతి సంవత్సరము దసర నవరోత్సవాలు జరుగుతాయి. ఈ దసర నవరోత్సవల లో ప్రతి రోజు ఒక అవతారముతో దర్శనము ఇస్తారు. ఈ తొమ్మిది రోజులు తొమ్మిది అవతారాలతో దర్శనము ఇస్తారు
  • మొదతి రోజు బాల త్రిపురసుందరి దేవి .
  • రెండొవ రోజు గాయత్రి దేవి.
  • ముడొవ రోజు అన్నపూర్ణా దేవి.
  • నాలుగోవ రోజు లలితా త్రిపురసుందరి దేవి.
  • ఐదవ రోజు సరస్వతి దేవి .
  • ఆరొవ రోజు దుర్గాదేవి.
  • ఎడొవ రోజు మహాలక్ష్మిదేవి.
  • ఎనిమిదొవ రోజు మహిషాసురమర్దినిదేవి.
  • తొమ్మిదొవ రోజు రాజరాజేశ్వారిదేవి

  • ఈ ఐదొవ రోజున జరిగే సరస్వతి అమ్మవారి అలంకరణ రోజు అమ్మవరి జన్మనక్షత్రంగా అనగా ములానక్షత్రం గా భావిస్తారు
  • ఆ రోజున వేలాది మంది భక్తులు, విద్యార్థులు తరలివస్తారు. ఈ దేవాలయంలో వినాయక స్వామి, ఈశ్వరుడు, శ్రీ రాము ల వారు కొలువుతీరి ఉన్నారు
  • ఈ దేవాలయాన్ని దర్సించుటకు అనేక మంది భక్తులు అనేక ప్రదేశాల నుండి వస్తారు




  • Theppotsavam, or Theppothsava or float festival, is a Hindu religious festival carried out in Hindu temples in parts of South India, mainly Tamil Nadu during the month of Chitthirai or Aries
  • As a part of this festival, the principal idol of the temples is decorated and taken in procession through the tank of the temple

Some of the temples where the float festival is celebrated are :

  • Tirumala Venkateswara Temple
  • Meenakshi Amman Temple, Madurai
  • Samayapuram Mariamman Temple
  • Simhachalam Temple, Visakhapatnam
  • Kanaka Durga Temple, Vijayawada
  • Thiyagarajar Temple, Thiruvarur
  • Kolaramma Temple, Kolar, Karnataka